Finally I got all the required parts together for a fully functional LTE eNodeB. The eNodeB (E-UTRAN Node-B or Evolved Node-B) is the LTE equivalent of a GSM BTS or a 3G Node-B. Considering that its was only less than two years ago when I started to experiment with 3G Node-Bs, obtaining LTE equipment went faster than expected, especially considering that LTE is still in the deployment phase.Compared to what is needed to run a 3G Node-B, an LTE eNodeB really deserves the "Evolved" in its name. All the functionally of the 3G RNC is contained in the eNodeB (e.g. all the RLC/MAC and radio functionality) and only the higher layers are exposed through the so called "S1" interface. This interface is IP based, there are no such things like E1/T1 or ATM any more.
In case you wonder from where all the configuration parameters for the eNodeB like EARFCN or RF Output Power come from: They have to be configured when setting up the eNodeB, in my case you can configure a few hundred parameters. Luckily most of them have default values which for a start can be taken without modification.
The S1 interface is divided into S1-AP (Application Part) which is specified in TS 36.413. This is the interface to the MME (Mobility Management Entity) which is somehow comparable to a GSM MSC and it uses SCTP. The communication between MME and phone (abbreviated UE like in 3G) are the so called NAS (Non-access stratum) messages, in LTE this is mainly Mobility Management and Session Management, there is no Call Control. LTE NAS is specified in TS 24.301.
The second part of S1 is called S1-U for the user plane traffic which is GTP-U (GPRS Tunneling Protocol) specified in TS 29.281 and using UDP. S1-U connects to the S-GW (Serving Gateway), basically comparable to a GPRS SGSN.
The eNodeB also has a second interface called "X2-AP" (TS 36.423), it is used to interconnect multiple eNodeBs (this is needed for example for handling handover which is done be the eNodeBs themselves). I did not care about X2-AP yet because right now I only have one eNodeB.
So far I wrote a very simple "Proof-of-Concept" so that a phone (in my case an LTE USB Dongle) can register to the LTE cell and transfer data (IP traffic). Just to mention a few of the differences to 3G/GSM:
- The keys generated by the USIM in the UE (you can use a 3G USIM for LTE too) are not directly used for integrity protection or ciphering. Instead they are used to derive various keys, two of them are the ones used for ciphering/integrity protection on the air interface, this is done in the eNodeB.
- The NAS messages between UE and MME are also protected (integrity protected and optionally ciphered), another derived set of keys is used for this. This means that even if the keys in the eNodeB can be obtained, the NAS messages are still protected.
- One Mobility and one Session Management message can be transferred at once in one message over the S1-AP interface, this is for improving speed and saves data transfer on the core network.
Here is how it looks in WireShark when a phone registers to the LTE cell (recent versions of WireShark can handle S1-AP):
The colored lines are uplink messages (from UE to MME), the white lines are the response from the MME. You can see that a default bearer is configured together with attaching to the network. This means that without any further S1-AP messages user plane traffic can start immediately afterwards, at least if the default bearer is sufficient (e.g. the offered quality of service is good enough).
This all is just a very first start with LTE, I hope to find more time for it in the future and explore my eNodeB and LTE further.